When hospital buildings aren’t healthy

Andrew Cooper, managing director of Smartlouvre Technology, reveals how the very-latest in solar shading solutions could help hospitals create the best environments for recovery

Good ventilation is crucial in all buildings, but particularly in hospitals

Climate change…. Can anyone really argue with the volume of research and data that proves that the global warming effects are being caused by humans? That industry, infrastructure, and the needs of humans are causing changing tides, seasons, and generally rising temperatures across the planet?

Because of this we find ourselves needing to take more measures to manage the way we live in order to maintain the living standards we’ve become accustomed to.

In particular, we are spending increasing amounts of time indoors, avoiding the elements, and while we do, the fact is we’re damaging those elements.

And air conditioning, a relatively-new invention, is subsequently becoming more and more necessary to manage the temperature within buildings.

One question that I’ve asked myself and my peers many a time, is why are we not building better to accommodate the effects of the elements?

My argument is that in a lot of cases, we’re avoiding the obvious.

To build with the effect of the elements in mind, we’re utilising technology in cooling that does quite the opposite.

Hospitals and hospices are the biggest contradiction.

In a healthcare environment occupants need daylight more than ever.

Due to climate change, hospital wards are increasingly vulnerable to overheating and traditional solutions are inadequate

I don’t need to harp on about the benefits. A connection to the outdoors and having access to natural light helps patients heal faster, making for a shorter hospital stay, and, in general, the therapeutic environment that is strived for.

So, while one would assume methodology for optimising daylight was applied in the initial phases of the building design, what were the architect’s/client’s overriding decision factors for the final design? Because there’s always a compromise. Was it high levels of daylight alone? Energy efficiency? Or a combination of both?

And what about managing the heat that the daylight also provides? Or mitigating glare? Always a secondary factor in my experience and all too often disregarded, or at least deprioritised and found to be a problem after the building is occupied by those who most need visual and thermal comfort and those who are trying to care for them, in uncomfortable temperatures.

And so the facilities manager takes on the burden.

Back in 2018 a UK heatwave saw NHS trusts bulk buying mobile air-conditioning units, fans and bottled water to help beat the negative effect of temperatures, which climbed to up to 40C inside wards.

It’s a widespread problem, and one that is only expected to get worse.

2020 is predicted to be the warmest year in UK history when we are also dealing with a global coronavirus pandemic.

The pandemic brings this building cooling issue to the forefront.

Cibse guidance is clear: we should, wherever possible, enable the natural ventilation of buildings by opening windows and not use methods of cooling air by recirculation.

Hospitals are complex buildings to deliver, no-one would deny that. So, is that why solar shading isn’t prioritised?

Or is it the cost of cooling? Or the effect on the environment that overrides?

After all, installation of air conditioning uses large amounts of energy and contributes to climate change.

Ventilation is needed, especially when dealing with the pandemic, but so is heat and light control.

Worse still, healthcare trusts which don’t have imminent budgets for new buildings are seeing their running costs rise, year after year, in order to manage temperatures in buildings built when these levels of temperatures weren’t even a consideration.

The Committee on Climate Change - the Government’s official climate change advisors - stated in a recent report that the types of hospital ward that are vulnerable to overheating currently make up 90% of the total stock by floorspace.

And a recent Cambridge University report found that some £17.5billion of upgrades could be needed to make UK hospitals resilient to the heat through new shading measures and improved ventilation.

Overheating in hospitals is a serious issue.

The general design guidance for healthcare premises as defined by the Department of Health isn’t prescriptive when it comes to solar gain and glare. It simply states that it should be controlled and suggests examples of providing control being through louvres and blinds.

Whether internal or external, it doesn’t say.

Furthermore, it suggests that thermal comfort conditions are ‘issues to consider’. Where are the standards? The minimum heat gain and glare, the temperatures acceptable at any given point in the day?

Smartlouvre Technology works in a totally-different way to traditional blinds by neutralising solar heat gain and glare before they reach windows without diffusing daylight

Recuperating patients require a lot of sleep, which is interrupted at just 26C, and that’s just the start.

And so the management of heat and glare is left to shading solutions that, at best, remove only some of the problems, or, at worst, also remove the benefits of the glazing and/or the daylight.

Internal blind systems remove visibility and a connection with the outside world and only protect the room from a minimal amount of heat gain.

And external shading systems do work, but are expensive to install and maintain, as well as reducing the quality of daylight.

Even the most-recent advances in glazing technology reduce the view out.

So, what is the answer? How do you get optimum daylight distribution, visibility to the outside world, protection from glare, AND provide opportunity for ventilation?

The answer is you stop the heat and light before it hits the glass, with a metal fabric with micro fine louvres woven in to dissipate the sun’s heat and energy, but not block natural daylight, natural ventilation, or views out.

This solution works in a totally-different way to traditional external and internal blinds, which reflect, distort and restrict vision and light.

MicroLouvre fabric simply and invisibly neutralises solar heat gain and glare before they even reach the window, working non-stop like a heat exchanger dissipating the sun’s heat and energy into the atmosphere.

It doesn’t diffuse daylight; it provides all the benefits but not the negative impact of excessive heat gain and glare.

The louvres are micro fine and angled at a level to ensure optimum light in and visibility out, while protecting the building occupants from the heat, glare and even external viewing in. It’s known as angular selective technology.

The performance of this fabric has been tested time and time again by standards agencies, scientists, and researchers, including the BRE.

It’s not a fly-by-night product either. It’s been around since the 1940s but, in recent years, it’s been honed, and the production process improved, so that it remains the best solution for solar shading I’ve seen in my 45-ish years in the business.

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